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PC Information and Repair Guide: How Best to Fix PC/Computer Problems, Buy, Upgrade, Build, Recover, Restore, Repair and Protect Desktop and Laptop PCs

PC Buyer Beware! is being updated and converted into a WordPress site

Note that this website is being updated and coverted into a WordPress site. If you want to read any of the pages that have been updated so far here they are:

Hard Disk and SSD Drives -

PC Security -

Software Information -

Backup Methods: How to Make Restorable Backups and System Images -

The standard BIOS and UEFI/EFI BIOS -

Microsoft Product Activation -

Windows Device Manager -

PC Warranties -

PC Buyer Beware! is a comprehensive PC guide covering desktop and laptop/notebook PCs that provides the knowledge required to make sensible buying, building, upgrading, networking, broadband, recovering, repairing and computer-security decisions, helping users to solve hardware and software problems - PC Problems & Solutions - via articles and questions and answers (Q&As) grouped in categories. The quickest way to find the solutions to a particular computer problem is to enter a short and accurate description of it, such as pc freezes or program freezes, both of them very common problems, in the Search feature provided at the top of each page. A list of pages containing those or your own keywords will be presented.

You can access the main sections of this website by making use of the navigation bar provided on the left side of each page, or specific information by entering a suitable search query in the site-search box.

All of the major internal PC components, such as hard disk drives, graphics cards, processors, motherboards, etc., and the external peripheral components, such as monitors, networking equipment, mice, keyboard and printers, have their own section devoted to them. There are separate sections devoted to computer security, software and all of the versions of Windows currently in use – XP, Vista and Windows 7 and Windows 8.


PC Buyer Beware! Facebook page

Visit our Facebook page - - to read informative items going back in time that no longer appear on this page.

Why Google may be more 'evil' than the US National Security Agency (NSA)

November 19, 2014. - "For four decades, we have proudly championed citizen interests before Congress, the executive branch agencies and the courts." is what the Public Citizen website says about itself.

It has produced a report on the growing influence of Google in politics worldwide, made possible by the ad revenue it receives from web advertising that is powered by Google's knowing as much about us as possible - information gained from our use of its products and services - so that it can target customised ads at us across the web.

Google is now the top political lobbyist in the US, giving donations to all and sundry. In the following YouTube video, the RT TV channel's Abby Martin interviews a director of Public Citizen, Taylor Lincoln, about this state of affairs. The second link goes to the report mentioned in the video. Both are well worth watching/reading.

Why Google May Be More ‘Evil’ than the NSA | Think Tank -

Some facts Google doesn't pop up on your screen -

National Security Agency (US) -

What to do if files suddenly become corrupt and produce a Blue Screen of Death (BSOD) when opened or just won't open

November 10, 2014. - If you were using a Windows computer and were working on a file, printing it, etc., and the dreaded Blue Screen of Death (BSOD) appeared and a reboot offers starting up in Safe Mode or restarting as normal, the chances are that the file you were working on or with has somehow become corrupt and you won't be able to do anything with it. Every time you try an error message appears telling you that it has been edited by an "unknown client", providing no way to solve the problem.

The corrupt file has probably been saved to a bad sector of the hard disk drive or some of the computer's RAM memory has gone bad and is not functioning, with a bad part of the hard drive being the most likely cause, so running the Windows hard-drive diagnostic and repair tool called chkdsk might prevent other files from becoming corrupt. Chkdsk marks bad parts of the hard drive as bad and Windows then doesn't use them. However, if there are bad parts of a RAM memory module, it has to be replaced. Memory must function 100%; bad areas cannot be avoided. If it is not 100% functional, it causes all kinds of weird problems that often don't even look memory-related.

You'll have to set chkdsk to use a five-stage scan-and-repair operation. Of course, you must create a backup or a system image (I use the free version of Macrium Reflect; I've found Win7's Backup & Restore, which Win8 also uses, unreliable), preferably to an external hard disk drive or flash drive, which are now large and affordable enough to contain one. If the hard drive about to expire it might not be able to undergo the tests that chkdsk puts it through.

To do that in Windows 7 enter cmd in the Start... box, right-click on the cmd.exe link that is provided above it and click on "Run as administrator" in the menu. User Access Control (UAC) asks you for permission to bring up the black Command Prompt window, shown in the image below.

The black Command Prompt window in Windows 7 with Administrator privileges

If you want to see all of the switches that chkdsk uses enter chkdsk /? at the C:\ prompt, where C: is the drive on which Windows is installed.

Chkdsk only runs three tests if you just enter the command chkdsk at the Command Prompt. To run a five-stage operation type chkdsk /f /r (as is) and press Enter. There must be a single space between the command and both of its switches. The tool lets you know that it can't run as the volume (C:\) is in use and it asks if you want to schedule the volume to be checked during the next system startup. Press Y followed by Enter and then restart the computer.

Note that Chkdsk takes about 40 minutes to run that command on a sound computer, but, if it needs to do repairs or mark out bad sectors, it can take several hours to complete the job. There is no need to be concerned by anything that it deletes or repairs. I have never come across an occasion when the tool itself screws up a system by what it does. Microsoft has honed this tool to perfection.

Here are some useful webpages on how to use chkdsk in Windows 8/8.1 and the Windows Memory Diagnostic tool.

Chkdsk [Windows 8] -

Diagnosing memory problems on your computer [windows 7] -

Windows 8: Memory Diagnostics [Video] -

Google Inbox is a new interface for an existing Gmail account

November 4, 2014. - Google has refined its Gmail email service by adding what it calls an optional Inbox that categorises the email that is received, on the face of it to make the experience of reading email more user-friendly, but also no doubt to make it easier for Google to find out which email is the most important to the user so that it can deliver better-customised ads from scanning it for keywords.

Google scans all of the emails coming into a Gmail account and picks out and displays the useful information that the user is most likely to want to read.

This is the same with Inbox, meaning, of course, that it is programmed to find out what is important to you.

The new Gmail feature is only currently made available to users by invitation. The intention is no doubt designed to appeal to the narcissistic users who are made to feel special by being given an invitation. Gmail itself was initially only made available by invitation before it went mainstream. The same will happen to Inbox. If you want an invitation, I'll leave it up to you to find out how to get one, because I don't approve of making it easier for Google to make more tax-free income (it channels all of its income through tax havens) than it is already making and then investing in ways and means to invade our privacy even further than is already the case.

Existing Gmail addresses stay the same and if you obtain Inbox and don't like it, you can revert to the classic interface. In other words, Inbox is an optional feature.

Google has created Inbox apps for both iOS (Apple's mobile operating system) and Android (Google's mobile operating system). The iPhone app can be used on an iPad, but its upscaled adaptation to the iPad looks stretched. An iPad version will no doubt be made available some time soon.

Here is a useful comment I found on the web: "I stepped up my blocking measures years ago and keep upping them the more companies like this try to invade my space. Firefox + adblock + noscript = no advertisements, no tracking cookies or scripts alongside PeerBlock prevents Google Analytics from ever reaching my system [via websites that use it] or information leaving my system - same with anyone else I choose to block."

Users can also set up their own email server that keeps email as private as possible. Here is an article on how to do it:

The latest free version of CCleaner monitors your computer unless you disable the two options

October 18, 2014. - I have just installed the latest free version of CCleaner, the system-cleaning tool. During the installation the usual options of what you want the cleaner to do appeared. I always disable the option called "Enable Intelligent Cookie Scan" because this leaves in place the cookies of Google, Yahoo! and other tracking sites and there is no option to disable the setting other than by re-installing CCleaner, which, to me, is very suspicious indeed.

It looks as if the tool expects you not to go through the settings during installation and allow this default setting while making sure that you don't see it again in the Settings after installation. This time there was no default option to install Google Chrome as my default web browser or to install McAfee software.

When the tool was installed, I noticed that a CCleaner icon was in the Notification Area. The tool was actively monitoring the system like a malware scanner. Since CCleaner is sponsored by Google, I don't want it to monitor my system in any way, I just want it to remove the usual web debris when I want it to, not even during system startup. I certainly don't want a system cleaner, which is not a malware scanner, to scan for stuff to clean.

I discovered the settings, applied by default, under Monitoring, under the Options heading. The top one is called "Enable system monitoring" and the bottom one is called "Enable Active Monitoring". Who knows what the difference between them is? I don't care, because I am never going to enable either if them. The middle option called "Enable browser monitoring" is only available in the paid-for Pro version of the tool.

It's up to you if you use the tool if you want it to monitor your system, but I would advise against it, because, yet again, this monitoring has been sneaked it, and is therefore very suspicious. Its options, shown in the image below, did not appear during the installation.

The monitoring settings in the CCleaner system-cleaning tool

The Comodo Dragon web browser is a more secure version of the Google Chrome browser

October 18, 2014. - The Google Chrome web browser and the Google Chrome OS (operating system) are both open-source software that are open to any developers to customise to their liking.

The Comodo Dragon web browser is a Chrome-based browser that has been developed by Comodo, which also develops other security software, such as the Comodo Firewall. Google uses its Chrome browser to collect user data in order to create individual user profiles that are used to deliver customised ads to profiled users across the web. The Dragon browser has been customised to prevent tracking. If you use Chrome, you may prefer to uninstall it and use this better-secured version of Chrome instead. Here is its website:

The Chromium Projects -

Google's gmail says that this customised version of Chrome is not supported when you use it to log on to your gmail account and asks you to use a supported browser, but the browser works perfectly well so I just click on the Dismiss option. This is good proof that this version of Chrome is secure from Google's prying computers if Google itself doesn't support it.

When the browser is installed you can view its settings by right-clicking the button in the top left-hand corner and then selecting Settings.

The first option called "Sign in" allows the user to sign into the browser with their Google account, which I would not do because it defeats the aim of keeping Google's nose out of your business. As soon as you sign into a Google account you are being tracked.

The second option called "On startup" sets the page that opens by default when the browser is run. It is the Yahoo! site, which can be changed there to the user's preference. The Home button, in the same corner of the browser, can be set to another site.

The "Search" setting allows the user to set the search engine that is used. To conduct a search you just enter the search query in the browser's address box.

The setting that you need to see are under "Show advanced settings" at the bottom of the settings page. The most important settings are under Privacy and Passwords and Forms.

Under Privacy, I only disable the "Use a prediction service...", because you are telling it what you are searching for, and I disable all of the settings under Passwords and Forms, because I don't want to have any of my passwords or email addresses to be remembered. A thief steals your computer and has access to your accounts that only have password protection. I don't allow the browser to provide my location for obvious reasons.

The "Enable malware domain filtering (Comodo Secure DNS)" setting makes the browser access Comodo's DNS servers to access websites instead of the ones provided by your Internet service provider, which is a similar service to the superior OpenDNS, but Comodo's service is probably preferable to those provided by Internet service providers.

Apart from the Settings options, there is a category called Extensions, also accessed by right-clicking the button in the top left-hand corner and then selecting it. I disable the nuisance Comodo Drag&Drop Service and the Comodo Share Page Service, which produce pop-ups to the left and right sides of the browser.

The Windows 10 Tech-Preview process

October 14, 2014. - The Windows 10 Technical Preview was released on October 1 that can be downloaded as an ISO file and installed as a dual-boot system or on a virtual machine installed in an existing installation of Windows 7 or 8.1. It is also possible to upgrade an existing installation of Windows 78.x, but this is not advisable on a computer that the user relies on. Users can preview the new version of Windows and provide Microsoft with feedback.

It's not advisable to install Win10 Preview on a computer that you rely on because it is still in an early phase of its development and can therefore cause problems, which may be serious. I am not going to test it myself. I always wait for the official release of a new version. I got the first release of Windows 8 Pro for £24. Perhaps the new version will be that cheap. There are rumours that it might be a free release to the owners of computers running Windows 8. New versions of Windows are never a significant departure from the previous version, so I never have much trouble adapting to a new version quickly. Windows 8 wasn't that much different from Windows 7 apart from the tiled Startup screen and the lack of a Start button, which makes a return in Win10 - one half showing the Desktop menu and the other half showing the tiled menu.

If you have any kind of feedback such as a suggestion, problem or solution click Start followed by the Windows Feedback tile.

Here is a good article on the Technical Preview release:

The image below shows the Win10 Start menu on a laptop.

Sheoing the divided Windows 10 Start menu on a laptop

Disk cleanup of obsolete Windows Update and Service Pack files in Windows 7 and 8.1

October 14, 2014. - Windows 7 and 8.1 provide an excellent tool that removes obsolete Windows Update, Service Pack and files that waste hard drive or SSD drive space. The tool has been improved in those versions of Windows. The tool is called Disk Cleanup and it is also available in Windows XP and Windows Vista. The versions in XP and Vista are not as capable as the updated version in Windows 7 and the built-in version in Windows 8.

The Disk Cleanup tool in Windows 7 was updated by an update. To open it just type its name into the Start => Search box and click the link that is provided. If it has the option shown in the image below called "Clean up system files", you have the updated version.

Improved Disk Cleanup tool in Windows 7 and 8

If you have the old version you can download the updated version from the following links:

32-bit version of Windows 7 -

64-bit version of Windows 7 -

The tool is built into Windows 8.0/8.1. Here is the page on how to use it:

Using the options provided by the tool can often recover several hundred megabytes or a few gigabytes of disk space.

Beware! - A new type of email scam

October 4, 2014. - I have just got an email beginning with Dear E-Mail Client, which says that it is a scam, that appears to have been sent from Google concerning my email (gmail) having exceeded its bandwidth limit - 5GB - necessitating increasing it to 10GB, asking me to click on a link called: Follow this link to complete the process: CLICK HERE. No webmail service provided by Google, Microsoft, Yahoo, etc., sends emails of this kind - not even with your name, which they know.

I held the mouse pointer over the link to reveal its URL at the bottom of the email. This is what it was: url? %2Fk7o5f8b&sa=D&sntz=1&usg=

I have removed the http://www and broken the link so that it doesn't work. This looks like a valid link, but it is not. Note that is the URL to Google's gmail, not When I clicked on the link that should have gone to, it was redirected to this website: /oju.html. Broken so that it doesn't work. is a fake email website that seems to be located in Lagos, Nigeria. None of its pages have any content.

As you can see, the link has in it, which is a very well-known website that allows long URLs to be made small. Therefore, the code in the link makes redirect to /oju.html via

On the /oju.html page a message appears in a small dialog box saying: Please re-login Your Email to continue the process. The link probably goes to a faked gmail website. If you log into it using your gmail email address and password, you are giving them to cyber criminals. Since many people very foolishly use the same password to log into many websites, the cyber criminals can try using it on ones that allow them to steal your money or make orders.

Here are the images of the email I received and the website that its link redirected to:

Email scam that uses a redirect via Fake email website that leads to a fake gmail website

Computer diagnostics: Solutions to desktop and laptop PC hardware and software problems

The hardware and software problems dealt with on this website are in the order of their popularity. When applicable, the order will change to match the popularity recorded by this website's web logs in the previous month.

Click a relevant link below to visit the information it describes

1. - Motherboard and power supply problems: How to fix common problems with faulty motherboards (mainboards) and power supplies (PSUs)

2. - Software problems: How to fix problems with Windows, programs, and utilities

3. - Hard disk drive problems: How to fix computer hard disk drive (HDD) problems

4. - RAM memory problems: How to fix problems with the Random Access Memory

5. - Video/graphics card problems: How fix common computer video and graphics problems

6. - Network problems: How to fix common wired and wireless networking and internet problems

7. - Windows 8 problems: How to diagnose and fix problems with Windows 8

8. - Windows 7 problems: How to diagnose and fix problems with Windows 7

9. - Recover, restore and repair Windows 7 (Win7) when a computer crashes or fails to boot

10. - Windows Vista problems: How to fix common problems with Windows Vista

11. - Recovering and repairing Windows Vista when a computer crashes or fails to boot

12. - Windows XP: How to troubleshoot and fix shutdown, restart (reboot), and startup problems

13. - Recovering and repairing Windows XP when a computer crashes or fails to boot

14. - Laptop/notebook problems: How to address or fix the most common laptop/netbook problems

15. - Processor problems: How fix common processor (CPU) problems

16. - CD/DVD drive problems: How to fix problems with CD and DVD drives and discs

17. - USB and FireWire problems: - How to fix common USB and FireWire problems

18. - Typical DLL (Dynamic Link Library) device driver problems

Build and Repair Your Own PC

Visit the Build Your Own PC pages of this website for information on how to build a desktop PC and solve self-build problems and visit the other sections, such as the Processors pages - which provides information on the brand-leading Intel Core family of processors - and the Video/Graphics, Sound, Motherboards and Monitors pages for more problem-solving information, all of which can be accessed via the menu items and jump menu on the orange navigation bar, or via the site search engine at the top of each of the main pages. When you know how to build a PC, you'll also know how to go about diagnosing problems and fixing one.

Solving problems with and how to use Windows 7 and Windows Vista

Click here! to go to the page on this site that deals with Windows 7, Microsoft's replacement for Windows Vista.

Click here! to go to the page on this site that deals with Windows Vista, Microsoft's replacement for Windows XP.


For PC security information visit the main Security section of this website, or make use of the site search engine at the top of each of the main pages to search for references to specific information on topics such as how best to keep secure on the web, security software, hardware and software firewalls, identity theft, privacy issues, how to hide form Google, phishing scams, viruses, malware, spyware, how to implement spyware removal and the different types of backups, etc.


While every effort has been taken to ensure the accuracy of the information contained on this website, the author assumes no responsibility for errors or omissions, or for damages resulting from the use of the information contained herein.

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